12 Angry Men (Lumet, 1957)

Billy Wilder vs Censorship | Double Indemnity, The Lost Weekend, Some Like It Hot & The Apartment




This blog is being included as part of the Billy Wilder blogathon, hosted by Kellee Pratt of Outspoken and Freckled (Twitter) and Aurora of Once Upon A Screen (Twitter).
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"Looking back on his American movies, it's astonishing the extent to which Billy Wilder helped change the ways in which the motion picture dealt with sexual taboos, alcoholism, murder, adultery, homosexuality and prostitution"
- Biltereyst (2010: 145)


Throughout the 1930s and through to the 60s, Hollywood pictures had to abide by a strict code of censorship known as The Production Code. Before the age ratings system was brought in, the worry was that audiences morals would be negatively effected by films that included unnecessary amounts of violence, sex, drug use or anything else that could have an impact on the audience member watching. Upholding good and proper ethics was the key requirement and pictures had to be submitted for a 'seal of approval'.

Billy Wilder was an expert at defying many of the forbidden rules that were set out by this. The subversive nature of his work was evident even in his very first picture The Major and the Minor (1942). About a woman called Susan Applegate played by Ginger Rogers who disguises herself as a 12 year old in order to get a child's train ticket. This disguise theme is one that would crop up again in Wilders filmography with Some Like It Hot (1959) and Irma La Douce (1963), and would cause the characters similar trouble! Applegate soon catches the attention of army major Kirby played by Ray Milland, who is unaware of her true identity and, believing she is a lost child with no parents agrees to take care of her until she finds them. Before long Applegate finds herself in love and the notion of the Major too is falling for her is hinted at. Obviously the inclusion of a grown man being in love with a 12 year old girl would have been impossible to film, even if the character was in fact a grown woman. Wilder would later describe the picture as a 'premature Lolita' in the Billy Wilder: How Did You Do It? set of televised interviews. He was able to sidestep the otherwise prohibited content because the audience was fully aware that she wasn't really a young girl, and Kirby's affection for her is merely seen as paternal. It showed how he had the nerve and skill to tackle subjects that other filmmakers would either dare not try or would outright fail to pull off with equal success.

Although a great deal of his pictures explored prohibited issues, the following blog will look at how four of his main films were effected by the censorship, how they had to be changed and the ways in which he constructed them to cleverly bypass the rules that were set out.

Fred MacMurray and Barbara Stanwyck in Double Indemnity


Many consider Double Indemnity (1944) a pioneering example of film noir, by their nature such pictures had problems with the censors because of their hardboiled origins in crime fiction that dealt frankly with sexual taboos and violence. Consider for example The Big Sleep (Hawks, 1946) that had to be changed so much from the Raymond Chandler's novel that even the cast didn't know what was happening. Double Indemnity had similarly difficult plot points that it had to side step including suicide, violence and the sexual relationship between insurance salesman Walter Neff (Fred MacMurray) and Phyllis Dietrichson (Barbara Stanwyck). These two characters were seen as so loathsome that no-one wanted to play the parts as it was seen as career suicide. MacMurray for example was reluctant to play Neff because he believed it would ruin his 'happy go lucky image' (Zolotow, 1977: 117) that he had established - he would again surprise audiences in his role as Jack Lemmon's slimy boss in The Apartment. The motivations and actions of the two main character's would clearly pose some problems for the film.


Barbara Stanwyck Double Indemnity
Stanwyck looks on as her husband is strangled
The code stated that brutal killings were not to be shown in detail, which would present a problem during the scene where Neff strangles Phyllis' husband and when she's killed herself. But Wilder let Stanwyck's acting tell the audience a story, by focussing our attention on her reactions rather than the literal murders Wilder forces audiences to imagine the injuries taking place, thereby appeasing the censors. In both these examples we see nothing of the actual act of strangling or shooting but we know it's there. 

'We knew offstage it (violence) was happening.... sex was happening offstage' (Wilder quoted in Horton, 2001: 136)

Double Indemnity alternate ending
Originally at the end of the novel, Neff and Phyllis die by way of a suicide pact, however Joseph Breen saw suicide as 'a violation of natural and divine law' (Quoted in Doherty, 2007: 300). It seems that it would also be impossible to pass by censors because of the notion that they are taking their own lives as opposed to being served justice through punishment by the law - something that the Breen office wanted to uphold. Wilder originally filmed an ending which he described as one of the best two scenes he ever shot, where Neff is sentenced to death in a gas chamber while his best friend and colleague Barton Keyes (Edward G Robinson) looks on helplessly. There are several reasons was not included in the final cut, first Wilder believed it was unnecessary since he always put his trust in the audience. Speaking of the ending that finally did make the cut:

"I already had the exchange of looks and the lighting of the match so anymore would have just been repeating" (Quoted in Horton, 2001: 135)

He clearly thought that no more was needed as we already knew what was going to happen to Neff after his arrest. Furthermore, censors believed the gas chamber ending was 'unduly gruesome' (Naremore, 2008: 82). It would be nice to see how the scene turned out, but the remaining ending is one of the most nuanced and heartbreaking endings in a film as is perfectly encapsulates the progression of the relationship between Keyes and Neff in a simple gesture. Although it was partly Wilder's choice to remove the scene this was an instance where the Production Code helped to improve the movie. 

Another contentious issue was the topic of sex, not only were Neff and Phyllis unmarried but adultery was not allowed to be explicitly stated. Hence, during the first meeting between the two and after the attraction is make obvious - we get a scene full of innuendo and double entendres:

"Phyllis: There's a speed limit in this state, Mr. Neff, 45 miles an hour.
Neff: How fast was I going, Officer?

Phyllis: I'd say around 90.

Neff: Suppose you get down off your motorcycle and give me a ticket.

Phyllis: Suppose I let you off with a warning this time"

Barbara Stanwyck intro Double Indemnity

Although Wilder was known for his quick witted dialogue, Schickel argues that imagery is the movie's 'great strength' (1992: 10). In the same scene the camera follows the legs of Phyllis as she walks down the staircase - her anklet becomes the most memorable and lustful aspect of her appearance to Neff - "I kept thinking about the way that anklet of hers cut into her leg".

Wilder was able to suggest sex without showing it by using simple methods; later when they both meet at him apartment the two of them are sitting on the sofa, kissing. After a dissolve the two of them are sitting apart from each other and Phyllis is re-applying make up. Audiences weren't stupid and Wilder made the most of this - ‘even the most casual movie goer knows that movies are filled with sex, crime, cruelty and violence’ (Powdermaker, 1950:73)

Ray Milland the Lost Weekend

The Lost Weekend (1945) was a revolutionary film in various different ways; it was one of the first to make use of the musical instrument the Theremin which would be commonly used in sci fi films of the future. It was also one of the first Hollywood, post WW2 films to make use of on-location shooting in New York after nearly a decade and a half (Sanders, 2013: 32). But most importantly Wilder was one of the first directors to take the issue of alcoholism seriously, so seriously in fact that that Paramount executives considered axing it because it was a 'bleak and terrifying story of the sort that Hollywood often avoided' (Monaco, 2010: 94). The studio was even offered millions of dollars by the liquor industry to bin the film... Wilder said that they should have just offered the money all to him and he'd have gotten rid of it! 

The worry that the picture was too bleak led to several differences from its source material of the same name written by Charles Jackson. The most significant one being the way in which the film's ending is changed from bleak to uncharacteristically happy in comparison to the novel. However, it is one example in which Wilder was able to use his skills as a storyteller to create a deeper meaning to a films conclusion, even when under pressure from studio opinion and preview audience preference.

The Lost Weekend Directed by Billy Wilder
"The circle is the perfect geometric figure, no end, no beginning"
After his five-day bender that would give Don Draper and Roger Sterling a run for their money, failed writer Don Birnam (Ray Milland) has lied, been humiliated, stolen money, experienced the DTs and alienated those who love him. At the end of the book it's made explicit that he's going to go through the same 'vicious little circle' all over again despite his loyal girlfriend Helen's (Jane Wyman) best efforts. After stealing and then pawning her leopard coat to buy six pints of Rye:

"He sat down on the edge of the bed and began to drink... he filled the glass again, set it on the floor by the bed and crawled in" (Jackson, 1944: 243)

Before this Don even contemplates murdering his maid to obtain a key in order to gain access to the liquor cupboard, this more gritty ending would not have swayed well in test screenings at a time when audiences expected a 'comic souse'. It is clear that a more redemptive conclusion was desirable to 'appease' (Terral, 2014:53) censors. The (seemingly) more upbeat ending was written by Wilder and Brackett because they were 'under pressure from the studio to provide an upbeat finale' (Crowley, 1994: 190) where Don remarkably gives up the bottle altogether:

Ray Milland in the Lost Weekend
"Don has risen from the couch and has picked up the glass of whiskey, there's a second of hesitation then he uses it for an ashtray, dropping the cigarette in it" (Brackett & Wilder, 109:1944)

This is a quite drastic change and many reviewers have found it too unbelievable and one of the pitfalls of the picture. Compare this to the final scene of Days of Wine and Roses (Edwards, 1962) for example, where Jack Lemmon tries and fails to convince his better half to quit drinking, leaving him alone with his daughter. On the surface, Don's reformation appears too unrealistic to be true and an example of Wilder trying to appease audiences that were not ready for realism. But one of Billy Wilder's tips to screenwriters was influenced by his idol Ernst Lubitsch:

"Treat your audience with respect...let them add up two plus two.. they'll love you forever"

As mentioned before, Wilder had faith in the intelligence of his audience, commenting on the final scene where Don is dissuaded from suicide and promises to stop drinking, he has said:

"We end on a note of promise, that he is going to make one more attempt to reform, but that's as far as the story goes" (Quoted in Phillips, 2010: 81)

The Lost Weekend Opening

The film repeats its opening image but in reverse, with the camera tracking back from Don's apartment window which at the start had a bottle of rye hanging from a piece of rope, a method used by Don to hide his booze from his brother. Although it is no longer there it appears that there is a significant point that Wilder was trying to get across by coming full circle within the picture. Just because Don says he's going to give up doesn't necessarily mean that he will, who's to say that he won't go through the exact same journey again in the next couple of days. As Bim, the nurse in the alcoholic ward says to Don - "You'll come back, they always do".

Don's favourite watering hole, Nat's Bar which is based on the real PJ Clarke's on 3rd Avenue in NY is frequented by a streetwalker named Glora, played by Doris Dowling who is as 'professional as the Breen office would allow, and they kicked up quite a fuss' (Cairns, 2012:9). While he had to tiptoe around the subject of prostitution in the 40s, Wilder was free to make the topic obvious by the time it came to Irma La Douce (1963), but that was nearly twenty years later. Gloria's occupation is obviously never directly mentioned but she regularly meets with different clients in the bar and has a soft spot for Don (she makes a habit of running her finger through the neckline of his hair when she walks past him). While the Breen office were so pre-occupied with her character, they neglected to take notice of another significant individual.

Ray Milland anf Frank Faylin in The Lost Weekend
Bim the nurse: 'A leering malevolent individual that gives
homosexuality a bad name' (Phillips, 2010:79)
The reason for Don's dependance on alcohol in the book is because of his inability to come to terms with his homosexuality, however 'audiences were not prepared for any references to homosexuality in mainstream Hollywood films' (Cornes, 2006: 125). In the picture it isn't hinted to at all, instead it is his way of curing himself of his writers block. Indeed, when he is in the comfort of a bar Don is waxing lyrical about his own abilities as a writer, comparing himself to Hemingway and Shakespeare but without a drink he's unable to focus on the typewriter in front of him for even a minute. The movies usually 'mocked the third sex' (Leff & Simmons, 230: 2001) and was described by the code as 'sex perversion'. While Wilder was unable to portray the sexuality of the main character faithfully to the novel, he was able to do so to a side character. When he ends up in the alcoholic ward of the Bellevue Hospital, Don is taken care of by the aforementioned Bim (Frank Faylen). A 'contemptuous' (Jackson, 1944:128) character who mocks patients and appears to take a kind of sadistic pleasure in mocking their addiction, Bim is portrayed as a predatory individual in both the film and book (much more so in the book however, constantly addressing Don as "baby"). Wilder has said:

"I directed the actor how to play his role as a homosexual, the censor couldn't nail me on it however because I had been subtle about it" (Quoted in Phillips, 2010: 79)

Bim gives an unusual amount of attention to Don in comparison to the other regular patients, guiding him on a tour of the ward and asking for "honeyboy's" name so that the hospital can notify his loved ones where he is via a postcard. Ultimately he taunts Don relentlessly about where he is going to end up ("your folks better get used to our little postcards") and becomes one of the most memorable and interesting side characters in Wilder's filmography.


Marilyn Monroe in Some Like It Hot

Truly one of the nails in the coffin of the Production Code Some Like It Hot (1959) featured cross dressing, homosexuality, tommy gun massacres, double entendres, suggestive clothing and maybe the best movie ending of all time, where Jack Lemmon and Joe E Brown practically agree to get married. Tony Curtis said that Wilder submitted the film after completion with 'some apprehension' (2009: 34) because of its subject matter, about two musicians played by Curtis (Joe/Josephene) and Lemmon (Jerry/Daphne) who dress as women and join an all girls band to escape some vengeful gangsters. It was eventually deemed 'highly offensive to Christian and traditional morals of morality and decency' whose 'dialogue was 'not only double entendre but outright smut' (Quoted in Vogel, 2014: 146) according to the Legion of Decency. It dealt head on with the taboos that were restricted in the 40s and early 50s, no longer did Wilder have to write between the lines to create a storyline with a homosexual subtext like he had to with The Lost Weekend.

In a scene that people in test screenings laughed at so loudly that they couldn't hear the dialogue, Lemmon has arrived back from his date with rich playboy Osgood Fielding (Joe E Brown) which he attends dressed as his female alter ego Daphne. As he is sat on the bed he announces his engagement, "who's the lucky girl?" Tony Curtis asks, "I am" replies Lemmon. After this he debates whether he is going to go to the Rivera or Niagra Falls for the honeymoon... swept away in the moment and forgetting that he isn't actually a woman. Given the fact that it was a comedy, it was able to deal with homosexuality in a more open way than a drama would have been. During the Tango scene you can see the gradual progression of Daphne becoming more feminine, as she starts of accidentally leading Osgood during their dance, to, well this:

dance scene some like it hot

Barrios argues that the picture is a 'carnival of sexual liberation' (2003:265), it shows Lemmon's character's transformation from a man who is competing for Marilyn Monroe's (Sugar 'Kane') affections to one who embraces his new identity as a female. The other scene that accentuates this is the famous ending, when Lemmon tries to dissuade Osgood from marriage, who is oblivious to his true identity:
 

When Osgood reveals that it doesn't matter to him that Lemmon is in fact a man in drag, neither of them react in a negative way; Osgood is completely indifferent and Lemmon doesn't exactly object to the prospect of marrying a man. Guilbert & Dagenham argue that this reluctance 'is a way of approving the homosexual act being proposed... laughing at the masculinity crisis that was effecting America' (2007: 129).

During the aforementioned tango scene, Wilder uses whip pans to simultaneously show us the development of the relationship between Joe and Sugar. Joe, while posing as a successful millionaire, who has unfortunately had 'two ponies drowned under him' whilst playing water polo, seduces Sugar aboard a yacht after revealing that women tend to 'leave him cold'. Sugar is more than happy to try and cure him of his impotence and a few kisses later, his glasses have steamed up, Gemunden (2008: 103) says that the themes of heat and steam permeate throughout the picture, literally and figuratively allowing the 'temperature to rise'.

Monroe Dress Some Like It Hot
Some Like It Hot combined this comedy with a sub plot involving murder in the times of prohibition, again Wilder would push the boat when it came to the topic of liquor, having the all girls band getting boozed up on the train and Monroe's character sipping from a secret flask - "I don't want you to think that I'm a drinker. I can stop any time I want to - only I don't want to". Speaking of Monroe, Wilder managed to use lighting in a clever manner during her performance of 'I wanna be loved by you' - with only the upper part of her body bathed in the the spotlight. Again like the aforementioned yacht scene, the topic of sexuality was obvious for all the audience to see when she is singing in a dress that is partially see through. Ebert describes this moment as one of the most 'blatantly sexual' in all of movies, with the neckline of the dress 'scooping to a censors eyebrow north of trouble'.

The Apartment, Billy Wilder and Jack Lemmon the Production Code

Wilder originally wanted to make The Apartment (1960) after watching Brief Encounter (Lean, 1945). While the relationship between the two doomed lovers was the key emphasis of the picture, what about Alex Harvey's (Trevor Howard) friend who lends them their apartment? Wilder explores this through Jack Lemmon's CC Baxter, who lets his bosses use his bachelor pad for their own illicit affairs, earning him swift rise through the ranks of his place of employment until he is soon sharing the same floor as his boss Jeff Sheldrake (Fred MacMurray). Although his neighbour, Dr Dreyfuss (Jack Kruschen) believes he is quite the playboy because of all the women that he hears being brought back every night - Baxter is in fact an incredibly lonely individual that's too timid to stand up for himself. His superiors take advantage this reluctance until he discovers that elevator operator Fran Kubelik (Shirley MacLaine), whom he has a soft spot for is the mistress of Sheldrake.

Think of The Apartment as Mad Men had it been made 50 years earlier, the office parties where the employees replace the water coolers with alcohol, the Manhattan setting, the secretaries who involuntarily eavesdrop on conversations between their bosses and their mistresses, the sharp suits, the lines of identical desks full of employees diligently typing away, the flirting (or in The Apartment's case, arse pinching) in the elevators, or the fact that Baxter's television is so loaded with advertisements he can't be bothered to even watch. His office is full of philandering executives in a world where the women are relegated to secretaries or switchboard operators (Sheldrake's secretary is even called Miss Olsen!). Chandler says that it does indeed portray corporate life in 1960s America as a 'man's world' and critical comments of the film at the time described it as 'a dirty fairy tale' (Alpert, 1960: 24) and an 'immoral' piece (MacDonald, 1960 quoted in Balio, 2009 :170) that clearly wasn't interested in abiding by rule that film shall 'not infer that low forms of sex relationship are the accepted or common thing'. As the 60s dawned, Wilder seemed to be pointing out the hypocrisies of the code at a time when there was about to be massive social change in America considering the sexual revolution and the introduction of the contraceptive pill were both right around the corner. The rules and regulations that were set out by the code in the 30s were now simply outdated in the wake of the new, relaxed approach to previously restricted topics. A biographer of Wilder argued that 'it's hard to believe that anybody could have been shocked by The Apartment' (Zolotow, 1977: 315).

That being said, the adultery still had to happen off screen, but there was no need to show it. A Variety magazine film critic said in their review the time: 'The dialogue, and its execution are frank. There is no hiding the fact that full fledged lovemaking is going on in these quarters' (1960). One of the funniest examples this frank dialogue occurs on Christmas eve when Jack Lemmon is drowning his sorrows after discovering Fran's relationship with Sheldrake. As he sits at a bar that is full of other lonely and very drunk people that are looking for someone to spend the evening with, a dumb-blonde character played by Hope Holiday sits next to him and tries to get his attention:

"Twas the night before Christmas and all through the house, not a creature was stirring... nothin'... no action... dullsville!"

Fred MacMurray and Shirley Maclaine the Apartment
Although it has one of the most heartwarming endings, The Apartment is simultaneously known for its cynicism of American life too. The supposed 'sanctity' of marriage that had to be upheld is dismissed head on during a scene at the Christmas party when Baxter shows Fran a christmas card that he has received from Sheldrake. Showing the whole happy family gathered in their living room, including Mrs Sheldrake who is of course completely oblivious to her husbands infidelity. Fran, who really is in love with Sheldrake simply looks on helplessly. Not only are the characters in this film having affairs, but they are doing so without any remorse at all. One of the saddest moments in the picture occurs when Fran buys Sheldrake a thoughtful gift, an LP featuring the music that plays in their favourite bar. He realises that he's forgotten to get her anything, so instead just hands her some money - essentially turning her into a prostitute. With The Apartment Wilder pushed the envelope and presented a very cynical image of corporate America. It could, 'with relative ease be sold as risqué' (Leab, 2000: 4) demonstrating just how far American attitudes had come with regards to sexuality.

While some might consider the Production Code an unnecessary form of censorship that prevented any development of Hollywood film, it has been argued that necessities of it became a 'virtue' (Babington & Evans, 1989: 217) for Wilder. His process of production for example very often included going into filming without a finished script, in the case of Sunset Boulevard the studios read the as yet partial screenplay and green lit it without knowing that the film was a harsh critique of the Hollywood industry! His talent as a filmmaker and faith in allowing the audience to piece together off screen action was evident in his 40s pictures and by the time it came to Some Like It Hot he was able to openly mock the now redundant clauses of the code.

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Remember to check out Outspoken and Freckled and Once Upon A Screen for more information on the Billy Wilder blogathon!


References:

Alpert, H., 1960. The Apartment. Saturday Review. June 11, 1960.

Babington, B., & Evans, P., 1989. Affairs to Remember: The Hollywood Comedy of the Sexes. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Barrios, R., 2003. Screened Out: Playing Gay in Hollywood from Edison to Stonewall. New York: Rutledge

Balio, T., 2009. United Artists, Volume 2, 1951–1978: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, Volume 2. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Biltereyst, D., 2010. 'Censorship, Negotiation and Transgressive Cinema: Double Indemnity, Some Like It Hot and Other Controversial Movies in the United States and Europe.' In K. McNally, ed. 2010. Billy Wilder: Movie Maker: Critical Essays on the Films. Jefferson: McFarland. pp. 145-161

Curtis, T., 2009. The Making of Some Like It Hot: My Memories Of Marilyn Monroe and the Classic American Movie. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.

Cornes, J., 2006. Alcohol in the Movies, 1898-1962: A Critical History. Jefferson: McFarland

Crowley, J., 1994. The White Logic: Alcoholism and Gender in American Modernist Fiction. Massachusetts: Keystone.

Doherty, T., 2007. Hollywood's Censor: Joseph I. Breen and the Production Code Administration. New York: Columbia University Press.

Germunden, G., 2008. A Foreign Affair: Billy Wilder's American Films. New York: Berghahn Books.

Guilbert, G., & Magenham, N., 2007. 'Gender In Billy Wilder's Some Like It Hot'. In G. Guilbert, ed. 2007. Literary Readings Of Billy Wilder. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publising.

Horton,. R., 2001. Billy Wilder: Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi

Jackson, C., 1944. The Lost Weekend. New York: Vintage.

Leab, D., 2000. A Walk On the Wilder Side: The Apartment as Social Commentary, ed., 2000. Windows On the Sixties: Exploring Key Texts of Media and Culture. New York: St Martens Press. pp. 1-19

Leff, L and Simmons, J., 2001. The Dame In the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship and the Production Code, 2nd ed. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky

Monaco, P., 2010. A History of American Movies: A Film-by-Film Look at the Art, Craft, and Business of Cinema. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press

Naremore, J., 2008. More than Night: Film Noir in Its Contexts. Los Angles: University of California Press

Phillips, G., 2010. Some Like It Wilder: The Life and Controversial Films of Billy Wilder. Kentucky: The Universal Press of Kentucky.

Powdermaker, H., 1950. Hollywood: The Dream Factory. New York: Arno Press.

Review: The Apartment. Variety Magazine. May 18, 1960. {Online} Found at: http://variety.com/1960/film/reviews/the-apartment-1200419766/

Sanders, J., 2013. Scenes from The City: Filmmaking in New York. New York: Rizzoli Int Publications.

Schickel, R., 1992. Double Indemnity. Worcester: BFI

Vogel, M., 2014. Marilyn Monroe: Her Films, Her Life. Jefferson: McFarland

Zolotow, M., 1977. Billy Wilder In Hollywood. London: Pavillon Books Ltd.



Comments

  1. Beautiful analysis of the subject matter of some of Wilder's greatest films, which also happen to be some of the finest motion pictures ever made. Creative artists like Wilder had to be so innovative and inventive and find ways to suggest and hint and symbolize taboo topics...and tell a story without sacrificing meaning and drama. In my opinion, these are all very frank and adult pictures, each a different and distinct genre, but Wilder uses all the tools in his arsenal, from fast-paced dialogue to double entendre to a mere sultry look or a well-placed ankle bracelet, to let the audience know what's really going on. This painstaking craft resulted in a richness of character, mood and suspense (HOW is the story going to unfold) that so few contemporary films now have...
    Love this post and your blog! Glad I happened upon it!!
    -Chris

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    Replies
    1. Thanks Chris! It was really fun to research and write - Wilder is such a genius in my opinion. The constraints that he had to work around just showed his remarkable writing and directing talents were. He's responsible both directly and indirectly for some of the best American pictures ever, so many were influenced by him.

      Thank you again for reading :-)

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